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statue de la liberté construction

This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet (30 m) high, and it similarly stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to guide ships. », Statue of Liberty - Ellis Island - the Foundation, 1875 – 1886 La construction de la statue de la Liberté, La statue de la Liberté : histoire d’une flamme, La statue de la Liberté, naissance d'un symbole, Site historique d'État des Cahokia Mounds, Kluane / Wrangell-St Elias / Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek, Parc international de la paix Waterton-Glacier, Portail du Registre national des lieux historiques, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Statue_de_la_Liberté&oldid=177419721, Relations entre les États-Unis et la France, Phare inscrit au Registre national des lieux historiques dans l'État de New York, Registre national des lieux historiques dans le National Park System dans l'État de New York, Registre national des lieux historiques à Manhattan, Registre national des lieux historiques en 2017, Historic Civil Engineering Landmark dans l'État de New York, Édifice représenté sur une pièce de monnaie, Projet soutenu par du financement participatif, Page avec coordonnées similaires sur Wikidata, Article de qualité géolocalisé aux États-Unis, Catégorie Commons avec lien local différent sur Wikidata, Article de Wikipédia avec notice d'autorité, Page pointant vers des dictionnaires ou encyclopédies généralistes, Page pointant vers des bases relatives à l'architecture, Page pointant vers des bases relatives aux beaux-arts, Portail:Protection du patrimoine/Articles liés, Portail:Registre national des lieux historiques/Articles liés, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, La taille totale de la structure, socle compris, La longueur du plus grand rayon de la couronne, En tonnes, la masse de la structure (dont 125 d'acier et 31 de cuivre), Le nombre de personnes qui peuvent tenir dans la tête, Le nombre de mois nécessaires à l'assemblage de la structure, L'épaisseur en millimètres des plaques de cuivre, Nombre de caisses utilisées pour transporter la statue, démontée, de la France vers les États-Unis, Le coût estimé, en euros à la construction, La date inscrite en chiffres romains sur le livre. [51], During his second trip to the United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union. [158], The statue, including the pedestal and base, closed on October 29, 2011, for installation of new elevators and staircases and to bring other facilities, such as restrooms, up to code. Instead, Bartholdi cut portholes in the torch—which was covered with gold leaf—and placed the lights inside them. Elles montrent sa construction et les tests d’assemblage dans les ateliers où elle fut construite à Paris. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. [95] A kindergarten class in Davenport, Iowa, mailed the World a gift of $1.35. This government is a howling farce. La statue de la Liberté attend la fin du confinement (01/04/2020), La statue de la Liberté terminée mais bloquée à Paris (25/03/2020), Appel au don pour une nouvelle statue de la liberté à Gourin en hommage aux émigrés du centre-Bretagne (01/07/2019), Poitiers (Vienne), place de la Liberté, Monument commémoratif dit « la Liberté », http://www.saintaffrique.com/?lang=1&th=&art=120, Archéologie de la statue de la Liberté en ruine, « La folle chevauchée parisienne de "Luke le chanceux" ! Frédéric Bartholdi's design patent 3. Paris Tourism; Paris Hotels; Paris Bed and Breakfast; Paris Vacation Rentals ... A 1/4 sized version given to France by the US, this was one of the working models in the construction of the one in New York. Bartholdi was in any event busy with other possible projects; in the late 1860s, he approached Isma'il Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, with a plan to build Progress or Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia,[13] a huge lighthouse in the form of an ancient Egyptian female fellah or peasant, robed and holding a torch aloft, at the northern entrance to the Suez Canal in Port Said. Thank you. Photography Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs. workshop. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. [106], A ceremony of dedication was held on the afternoon of October 28, 1886. During the October 2013 United States federal government shutdown, Liberty Island and other federally funded sites were closed. The project is traced to a mid-1865 conversation between Laboulaye, a staunch abolitionist, and Frédéric Bartholdi, a sculptor. Above the door on each side, there are ten disks upon which Bartholdi proposed to place the coats of arms of the states (between 1876 and 1889, there were 38 U.S. states), although this was not done. According to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who later recounted the story, Laboulaye's alleged comment was not intended as a proposal, but it inspired Bartholdi. [174][175] Diane von Fürstenberg headed the fundraising for the museum, and the project received over $40 million in fundraising by groundbreaking. "[104] Bartholdi suggested gilding the statue to increase its ability to reflect light, but this proved too expensive. [34] He designed the figure with a strong, uncomplicated silhouette, which would be set off well by its dramatic harbor placement and allow passengers on vessels entering New York Bay to experience a changing perspective on the statue as they proceeded toward Manhattan. A broken shackle and chain lie at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Statue de la liberté, Statue, Histoire de paris. [124], In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered the statue to be transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland. This was not true, however, as Francis Longo, a thirty-nine year old Italian laborer, had been killed when an old wall fell on him. Land created by reclamation added to the 2.3-acre (0.93 ha) original island at Ellis Island is New Jersey territory. Mark Daniels, documentaire « La statue de la Liberté, naissance d’un symbole », Arte, 15 février 2014. Statue de la Liberte: Statue de la liberté - See 570 traveler reviews, 492 candid photos, and great deals for Paris, France, at Tripadvisor. [201][202] The Women's National Basketball Association's New York Liberty use both the statue's name and its image in their logo, in which the torch's flame doubles as a basketball. It appeared on commemorative coins issued to mark its 1986 centennial, and on New York's 2001 entry in the state quarters series. [31] They evoke the sun, the seven seas, and the seven continents,[32] and represent another means, besides the torch, whereby Liberty enlightens the world.[27]. [119] There was considerable public protest against the proposed exterior painting. A French flag draped across the statue's face was to be lowered to unveil the statue at the close of Evarts's speech, but Bartholdi mistook a pause as the conclusion and let the flag fall prematurely. The island reopened at the end of 2001, while the pedestal and statue remained off-limits. The four sides are identical in appearance. [64] The components of the pylon tower were built in the Eiffel factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret. [204] The National Collegiate Athletic Association's 1996 Men's Basketball Final Four, played at New Jersey's Meadowlands Sports Complex, featured the statue in its logo. It was thus, as he put it in a letter to Laboulaye: "land common to all the states. [135], The statue was examined in great detail by French and American engineers as part of the planning for its centennial in 1986. The statue is a frequent subject in popular culture. In completing his engineering for the statue's frame, Giæver worked from drawings and sketches produced by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was reopened on October 28, 2012,[1][160][161] but then closed again a day later in advance of Hurricane Sandy. [45] According to Cara Sutherland in her book on the statue for the Museum of the City of New York, 200,000 pounds (91,000 kg) was needed to build the statue, and the French copper industrialist Eugène Secrétan donated 128,000 pounds (58,000 kg) of copper. [170] On July 20, 2020 the Statue of Liberty reopened partially under New York City's Phase IV guidelines, with Ellis Island remaining closed. Parc national des grottes de Carlsbad (1995). [15] The Port Said Lighthouse was built instead, by François Coignet in 1869. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. [38] These refugees were forced to live in conditions that the wealthy Lazarus had never experienced. [167] In addition, Liberty Island was briefly closed on July 4, 2018, after a woman protesting against American immigration policy climbed onto the statue. [10] As Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential Americans. A tablet placed by the American Committee commemorates the fundraising done to build the pedestal. [133], A powerful new lighting system was installed in advance of the American Bicentennial in 1976. The statue was the focal point for Operation Sail, a regatta of tall ships from all over the world that entered New York Harbor on July 4, 1976, and sailed around Liberty Island. [24] Instead of the impression of violence in the Delacroix work, Bartholdi wished to give the statue a peaceful appearance and chose a torch, representing progress, for the figure to hold. [35], Bartholdi made alterations in the design as the project evolved. From "Album des Travaux de Construction de la Statue Colossale de la … A concession was granted in 2007 to Statue Cruises to operate the transportation and ticketing facilities, replacing Circle Line, which had operated the service since 1953. File:Statue de la Liberté, en construction.jpg. [46], Although plans for the statue had not been finalized, Bartholdi moved forward with fabrication of the right arm, bearing the torch, and the head. Œuvre d’art et prouesse techniqueLa version réduite de la statue, en terre cuite, conservée au musée de Blérancourt, est une réplique de la première pièce réalisée en 1870 par Bartholdi. [128] In 1946, the interior of the statue within reach of visitors was coated with a special plastic so that graffiti could be washed away. [43] Laboulaye arranged events designed to appeal to the rich and powerful, including a special performance at the Paris Opera on April 25, 1876, that featured a new cantata by composer Charles Gounod. "A young girl alone in the world" donated "60 cents, the result of self denial. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who took office the following day, selected the Bedloe's Island site that Bartholdi had proposed. [158] New York Congressman Anthony Weiner made the statue's reopening a personal crusade. Au départ, le fer a permis de créer le squelette. [103] A power plant was installed on the island to light the torch and for other electrical needs. 5 avr. The monument was temporarily closed from March 16, 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic until partially reopening on July 20, 2020. On December 2, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson pressed the telegraph key that turned on the lights, successfully illuminating the statue. [193] A replica 30 feet (9.1 m) tall stood atop the Liberty Warehouse on West 64th Street in Manhattan for many years;[193] it now resides at the Brooklyn Museum. [27], Crawford's statue was designed in the early 1850s. [157] In Reagan's dedication speech, he stated, "We are the keepers of the flame of liberty; we hold it high for the world to see. [150] To prevent the ray and arm making contact, the ray was realigned by several degrees. The idea of the "liberty" of this country "enlightening the world," or even Patagonia, is ridiculous in the extreme. I so appreciate the willingness of both you and Robert to share your experiences to help educate us all. It was swaying more and more when strong winds blew and there was a significant risk of structural failure. [23] A figure of Liberty was also depicted on the Great Seal of France. For decades it has towered or crumbled above the wastelands of deserted Earth—giants have uprooted it, aliens have found it curious ... the symbol of Liberty, of optimism, has become a symbol of science fiction's pessimistic view of the future. President Reagan presided over the rededication, with French President François Mitterrand in attendance. Workers erected the world's largest free-standing scaffold,[34] which obscured the statue from view. Production cinématographique à gros budget. [125] The Works Progress Administration (WPA) demolished most of the old buildings, regraded and reseeded the eastern end of the island, and built granite steps for a new public entrance to the statue from its rear. [203] The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League depicted the statue's head on their third jersey, beginning in 1997. He ordered that it be changed to a helmet. The only females granted access were Bartholdi's wife and de Lesseps's granddaughter; officials stated that they feared women might be injured in the crush of people. [149] The original torch was removed and replaced in 1986 with the current one, whose flame is covered in 24-karat gold. [213], Colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, NY, US, Other articles related to the Statue of Liberty. Rappelons que la Statue de la Liberté a été offerte par la France aux Etats-Unis, afin de célébrer le centenaire de la déclaration … The completed statue was formally presented to Ambassador Morton at a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York. The lighting was for only a few hours each evening, and it was not until 1957 that the statue was illuminated every night, all night. The group's leaders made speeches applauding the embodiment of Liberty as a woman and advocating women's right to vote. Columbia had supplanted the traditional European personification of the Americas as an "Indian princess", which had come to be regarded as uncivilized and derogatory toward Americans. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions. [142] The Statue of Liberty was one of the earliest beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. Other resolutions: 150 × 240 pixels | 301 × 480 pixels | 481 × 768 pixels | 642 × 1,024 pixels | 4,014 × 6,405 pixels. The erected statue does stride over a broken chain, half-hidden by her robes and difficult to see from the ground. Version peu crédible, car un anglophone qui lit « gaget » le prononce « gaguette ». 1 janv. [79] He proposed a pedestal 114 feet (35 m) in height; faced with money problems, the committee reduced that to 89 feet (27 m). [73] There was criticism both of Bartholdi's statue and of the fact that the gift required Americans to foot the bill for the pedestal. [89], Even with these efforts, fundraising lagged. The restriction offended area suffragists, who chartered a boat and got as close as they could to the island. The New York committee, with only $3,000 in the bank, suspended work on the pedestal. [164] The statue and Liberty Island reopened to the public on July 4, 2013. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed JULY IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776 in Roman numerals), the date of the U.S. [77] The fortifications of the structure were in the shape of an eleven-point star. [56] Eiffel and his structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin, decided to abandon the pier and instead build an iron truss tower. Both islands were ceded by New York to the federal government in 1800. A secondary skeleton was attached to the center pylon, then, to enable the statue to move slightly in the winds of New York Harbor and as the metal expanded on hot summer days, he loosely connected the support structure to the skin using flat iron bars[34] which culminated in a mesh of metal straps, known as "saddles", that were riveted to the skin, providing firm support. [37], The entire puddled iron armature designed by Gustave Eiffel was replaced. [73] There was also a feeling that Americans should design American public works—the selection of Italian-born Constantino Brumidi to decorate the Capitol had provoked intense criticism, even though he was a naturalized U.S. The ensuing cheers put an end to Evarts's address. The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, and is a major tourist attraction. In this painting, which commemorates France's July Revolution, a half-clothed Liberty leads an armed mob over the bodies of the fallen. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7 million to the restoration project. It can not or rather does not protect its citizens within its own borders. [86], Fundraising in the US for the pedestal had begun in 1882. Immediately thereafter, reassembly of the statue began. [34][39] An advantage of this choice was that the entire statue would be light for its volume, as the copper need be only 0.094 inches (2.4 mm) thick. Elle repose sur l'utilisation de trois matériaux. In the years following the Civil War, most Americans preferred realistic artworks depicting heroes and events from the nation's history, rather than allegorical works like the Liberty statue. On November 8, 2012, a Park Service spokesperson announced that both islands would remain closed for an indefinite period for repairs to be done. Bartholdi's home province of Alsace was lost to the Prussians, and a more liberal republic was installed in France. [49] The arm did not arrive in Philadelphia until August; because of its late arrival, it was not listed in the exhibition catalogue, and while some reports correctly identified the work, others called it the "Colossal Arm" or "Bartholdi Electric Light". Eiffel's iron framework was anchored to steel I-beams within the concrete pedestal and assembled. The Franco-Prussian War delayed progress until 1875, when Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U.S. provide the site and build the pedestal. An underwater power cable brought electricity from the mainland and floodlights were placed along the walls of Fort Wood. [105] General Charles Stone claimed on the day of dedication that no man had died during the construction of the statue. [172] The new museum, designed by FXFOWLE Architects, is integrated with the surrounding parkland. Step 2: If you printed your e-tickets you can go straight to the security check in line. It is fascinating to share your journey with you. Photos de la Statue de la Liberté - Photo guide de voyage à New York. [155], July 3–6, 1986, was designated "Liberty Weekend", marking the centennial of the statue and its reopening. One of these was the Lion of Belfort, a monumental sculpture carved in sandstone below the fortress of Belfort, which during the war had resisted a Prussian siege for over three months. Bartholdi had decided on a height of just over 151 feet (46 m) for the statue, double that of Italy's Sancarlone and the German statue of Arminius, both made with the same method. [121], On July 30, 1916, during World War I, German saboteurs set off a disastrous explosion on the Black Tom peninsula in Jersey City, New Jersey, in what is now part of Liberty State Park, close to Bedloe's Island. Above that, a balcony was placed on each side, framed by pillars. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, a Southerner who would later serve as President of the Confederate States of America, was concerned that the pileus would be taken as an abolitionist symbol. [47] In May 1876, Bartholdi traveled to the United States as a member of a French delegation to the Centennial Exhibition,[48] and arranged for a huge painting of the statue to be shown in New York as part of the Centennial festivities. The piece was titled La Liberté éclairant le monde, the French version of the statue's announced name. [34] The large mass is fragmented with architectural detail, in order to focus attention on the statue. [85] The concrete mass was the largest poured to that time. Shortly after the dedication, The Cleveland Gazette, an African American newspaper, suggested that the statue's torch not be lit until the United States became a free nation "in reality": "Liberty enlightening the world," indeed! Elles ont avant tout servi à rassembler les fonds nécessaires à la construction de la statue de la Liberté et à promouvoir ce projet, notamment par voie de presse. [80], Hunt's pedestal design contains elements of classical architecture, including Doric portals, as well as some elements influenced by Aztec architecture. With the announcement, the statue was given a name, Liberty Enlightening the World. The Park Service adhered to that position through the remainder of the Bush administration. [81] According to author Louis Auchincloss, the pedestal "craggily evokes the power of an ancient Europe over which rises the dominating figure of the Statue of Liberty". Construction of the Statue (continued) This enlarged sectional model of left hand holding tablet shows the method of construction. [52] Committees to raise money to pay for the foundation and pedestal were formed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. [172] The new $70 million, 26,000-square-foot (2,400 m2) museum may be visited by all who come to the island,[173] as opposed to the museum in the pedestal, which only 20% of the island's visitors had access to. [63] As the pylon tower arose, Eiffel and Bartholdi coordinated their work carefully so that completed segments of skin would fit exactly on the support structure. New, powerful lighting was installed in 1944–1945, and beginning on V-E Day, the statue was once again illuminated after sunset. He did successfully lobby for improved lighting within the statue, allowing visitors to better appreciate Eiffel's design. "[156], Immediately following the September 11 attacks, the statue and Liberty Island were closed to the public. If you need to go to will-call, follow signs to the pre-paid (will-call) window and pick up your tickets. See more ideas about Statue of liberty, Liberty, Statue. It was originally to be crowned with a pileus, the cap given to emancipated slaves in ancient Rome. The cost to repair the statue and buildings on the island was about $100,000 (equivalent to about $2,350,000 in 2019). [117], The statue rapidly became a landmark. [198] An image of the statue was chosen for the American Eagle platinum bullion coins in 1997, and it was placed on the reverse, or tails, side of the Presidential Dollar series of circulating coins. [118] Believing that the patina was evidence of corrosion, Congress authorized US$62,800 (equivalent to $1,787,000 in 2019) for various repairs, and to paint the statue both inside and out. 8 réponses à “Photos de la construction de la Statue de la Liberté en 1883” Rena dit : 2016/05/18 à 20:29 This was so inetiestrng and useful to read for me – as someone with no experience with epilepsy or seizures, either in myself or others. [208] The statue makes one of its most famous cinematic appearances in the 1968 picture Planet of the Apes, in which it is seen half-buried in sand. Workers within the statue had to wear protective gear, dubbed "moon suits", with self-contained breathing circuits. [187], President Calvin Coolidge officially designated the Statue of Liberty as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1924. Two Americans—Pulitzer and Lazarus—and three Frenchmen—Bartholdi, Eiffel, and Laboulaye—are depicted. General Stone was the grand marshal of the parade. [53] The New York group eventually took on most of the responsibility for American fundraising and is often referred to as the "American Committee". La statue de la Liberté est en cuivre repoussé, c'est à dire qu'elle est faite de 300 plaques de cuivre qui ont été martelées jusqu'à ce qu'elles épousent une forme particulière définie à l'avance. [10] Given the repressive nature of the regime of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no immediate action on the idea except to discuss it with Laboulaye. The enlargement of the details or their multiplicity is to be feared. Bartholdi placed an observation platform near the top of the pedestal, above which the statue itself rises. [52] On March 3, 1877, on his final full day in office, President Grant signed a joint resolution that authorized the President to accept the statue when it was presented by France and to select a site for it. The cornerstone bears a plaque placed by the, In 1903, a bronze tablet that bears the text of. [97][98] After five months of daily calls to donate to the statue fund, on August 11, 1885, the World announced that $102,000 had been raised from 120,000 donors, and that 80 percent of the total had been received in sums of less than one dollar. [110] Bartholdi, observed near the dais, was called upon to speak, but he declined. [42], Initially focused on the elites, the Union was successful in raising funds from across French society. [205] The Libertarian Party of the United States uses the statue in its emblem.[206]. The act also mentioned the efforts to found an American Museum of Immigration on the island, which backers took as federal approval of the project, though the government was slow to grant funds for it. [127], In 1956, an Act of Congress officially renamed Bedloe's Island as Liberty Island, a change advocated by Bartholdi generations earlier. [42] French monarchists opposed the statue, if for no other reason than it was proposed by the liberal Laboulaye, who had recently been elected a senator for life. [211] In Jack Finney's time-travel novel Time and Again, the right arm of the statue, on display in the early 1880s in Madison Square Park, plays a crucial role. [99], Even with the success of the fund drive, the pedestal was not completed until April 1886. "[192], Hundreds of replicas of the Statue of Liberty are displayed worldwide. Give me a chance to prove that I am worth it, to do something, to be someone in America." 6. [22], Bartholdi and Laboulaye considered how best to express the idea of American liberty. According to the National Park Service, the idea of a monument presented by the French people to the United States was first proposed by Édouard René de Laboulaye, president of the French Anti-Slavery Society and a prominent and important political thinker of his time. Ces photographies on été prises par Albert Fernique et sont disponibles sur le site de la New York Public Library. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site in Puerto Rico, History of the National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places Portal, Leslie-Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center, National Register of Historic Places portal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Statue_of_Liberty&oldid=990998270, Allegorical sculptures in the United States, Artworks in the collection of the National Park Service, Buildings and structures completed in 1886, Historic American Engineering Record in New York City, History of immigration to the United States, New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan, Lighthouses on the National Register of Historic Places in New York (state), National Park Service areas in New York City, National Register of Historic Places in Manhattan, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World, Statue of Liberty National Monument, Ellis Island and Liberty Island, Foundation of pedestal (ground level) to tip of torch, Height of copper statue (to torch): 151 feet 1 inch (46 meters), From ground level to torch: 305 feet 1 inch (93 meters), A plaque on the copper just under the figure in front declares that it is a colossal statue representing Liberty, designed by Bartholdi and built by the Paris firm of Gaget, Gauthier et Cie (, A presentation tablet, also bearing Bartholdi's name, declares the statue is a gift from the people of the Republic of France that honors "the Alliance of the two Nations in achieving the Independence of the United States of America and attests their abiding friendship.". The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel.

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