Several ecumenical councils of the early Church were held in cities located in present-day Turkey including the First Council of Nicaea (Iznik) in 325, the First Council of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon (Kadıköy) in 451. Later usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum ("Turkie, Tartaria") and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum (Turky). During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a world power.  Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. , The EU – Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalisation of tariff rates, and forms one of the most important pillars of Turkey's foreign trade policy. Après l'enchaînement des faits, place aux commentaires et aux analyses. Il apparaît à l’heure des premiers bilans tirés par le régime kémaliste lui-même 7, pour met-tre rétrospectivement en cohérence une série de mesures ayant des champs d’application distincts. , In 2016 the Skills Matter survey conducted by OECD found the levels of numeracy and literacy in the adult population of Turkey at rank 30 of the 33 OECD countries surveyed. – 1 A.D. in, "Acts 11:26 and when he found him, he brought him back to Antioch. The words tasvir or nakış were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish. Mais l'islam n'est pas religion d’État, contrairement aux pays musulmans. Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. The studios the artists worked in were called nakkaşhane. uniting the principalities and conquering the Balkans, Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated, rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples, population exchange between Greece and Turkey, military offensive into north-eastern Syria, European Charter of Local Self-Government, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests, Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, countries that have not ratified the Paris agreement on climate change, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, largest carrier in the world by number of countries served, several other airlines operate in the country, science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey, Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center, TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute, headquartered in Constantinople (Istanbul), Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul), UNESCO-listed intangible cultural heritage, 2010 FIVB Women's Club World Championship, 2013 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship, 2017 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship, Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK), L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları, 2019", "Annual growth rate and population density of provinces by years, 2007–2015", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey", "Erdogan: Turkey will 'never accept' genocide charges", "The Political Economy of Regional Power: Turkey", "European Parliament votes to suspend Turkey's EU membership bid", "Search for the Indo-Europeans: Were Kurgan horsemen or Anatolian farmers responsible for creating and spreading the world's most far-flung language family? L’islam est la religion dominante : plus de 99 % des habitants de la Turquie sont issus d’une famille musulmane. Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture. Arménie The young Turkish artists sent to Europe in 1926 came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Accueil; Religion; Entre la Turquie et les États-Unis, des menaces de sanctions réciproques. , Despite legal provisions, media freedom in Turkey has steadily deteriorated from 2010 onwards, with a precipitous decline following the failed coup attempt on 15 July 2016. Un État laïque ? Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Many natural gas pipelines span the country's territory. [needs update], TÜBİTAK is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. , According to Article 142 of the Turkish Constitution, the organisation, duties and jurisdiction of the courts, their functions and the trial procedures are regulated by law.  With the Surname Law of 1934, the Turkish Parliament bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father Turk). , Christianity has a long history in present-day Turkey, which is the birthplace of numerous Christian apostles and saints, such as Paul of Tarsus, Timothy, Nicholas of Myra, Polycarp of Smyrna and many others.  In the following year, the single-party period in Turkey came to an end, with the first multiparty elections in 1946. Bibliographie The women's national volleyball team won the gold medal at the 2015 European Games, the silver medal at the 2003 European Championship, the bronze medal at the 2011 European Championship, and the bronze medal at the 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix. (fr.)  The Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues, such as those in 1538, 1571, 1684 and 1717 (composed primarily of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy), for the control of the Mediterranean Sea.  The Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. Until then, female roles had only been played by actresses who were members of Turkey's ethnic minorities.  Genocidal campaigns were also committed against the empire's other minority groups such as the Assyrians and Greeks.  Turkey does not recognise conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.  Less than half of 25- to 34-year-old Turks have completed at least high school, compared with an OECD average of over 80 percent.  In the past, various Kurdish groups have unsuccessfully sought separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdish state, while others have more recently pursued provincial autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey.  The electoral threshold is ten percent of the votes.  Today, EU membership is considered as a state policy and a strategic target by Turkey. L'autre Turquie : Le mouvement aléviste et ses territoires The Eastern Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Constantinople (Istanbul) since the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD. , Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. Another famous 18th-century master by the name of Hatip Mehmed Efendi (died 1773) is accredited with developing motifs and perhaps early floral designs, although evidence from India appears to contradict some of these reports. Turkey's first sound film was shown in 1931.  As part of Turkey's migrant crisis, according to UNHCR, in 2018 Turkey was hosting 63.4% of all the refugees in the world, that is 3,564,919 registered refugees from Africa and the Middle East in total. May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.. , Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons.  In 2018 Turkey ranked 6th in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 45.8 million foreign tourists visiting the country.  The 1942-44 wealth tax for non-Muslims, the emigration of a portion of Turkish Jews to Israel after 1948, and the ongoing Cyprus dispute, which damaged relations between Turkish Muslims and Christians (culminating in the Istanbul pogrom of 6–7 September 1955), were other important events that contributed to the decline of Turkey's non-Muslim population. Other senior public officials are also appointed by the central government instead of the mayors (belediye başkanı) or elected by constituents. In the Second Balkan War (1913) the Ottomans managed to recover their former capital Edirne (Adrianople) and its surrounding areas in East Thrace, which was formalised with the Treaty of Constantinople (1913).  The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, the second longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated in 2005. The first narrative film, Sedat Simavi's The Spy, was released in 1917.  Turkey is ranked 32nd out of 34 in the OECD's PISA study.  However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and approximately 70–80 per cent of the country's citizens identify themselves as Turkish.  Turkey has the fifth-highest direct utilisation and capacity of geothermal power in the world.  In 2017, the CPJ identified 81 jailed journalists in Turkey (including the editorial staff of Cumhuriyet, Turkey's oldest newspaper still in circulation), all directly held for their published work (the country ranked first in the world in that year, with more journalists in prison than in Iran, Eritrea or China); while in 2015 Freemuse identified nine musicians imprisoned for their work (ranking third after Russia and China). According to Eurostat data, Turkish GDP per capita adjusted by purchasing power standards stood at 61 percent of the EU average in 2019.  This is compulsory and lasts twelve years: four years each of primary school, middle school and high school. The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa, which was the capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1413. ", "Turkey's Middle East Policies: Between Neo-Ottomanism and Kemalism", "Syria ratchets up tension with Turkey – warning it of dangers of rebel support", "Turkey, Egypt recall envoys in wake of violence", "Israel and Turkey end rift over Gaza flotilla killings", "Greece, Egypt, Cyprus urge Turkey to quit gas search off island", "Egypt, Greece, Cyprus pledge to boost energy cooperation", "Policy of Zero Problems with our Neighbors", "How Turkey Went From 'Zero Problems' to Zero Friends", "Erdogan's 'New Turkey' drifts towards isolation", "Syria conflict: Turkey and Russia 'agree ceasefire plan, "Turkey and Russia agree on draft Syria ceasefire, report says", "How Russia and Turkey brokered peace in Syria – and sidelined the US", Kurdish fighters join Turkey's Afrin operation, Recep Tayyip Erdogan vows to 'drown' Syrian Kurdish force set up by US, Turkey to U.S.: End support for Syrian Kurd YPG or risk confrontation, "Will The Egyptian And Turkish Militaries Clash In Libya? , Religion in Turkey (2019), Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. L’islam sunnite  In 2015 Turkey's media was rated as not free by Freedom House. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects. Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti] (listen)), is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe. La hiérarchie religieuse intégrée dans la bureaucratie ottomane a disparu avec l’ancien empire. [needs update], As of 2017, there are 190 universities in Turkey. Haci Bayram Veli (1352 - 1429) : Philosophe mystique, turc. The Turkish Armed Forces consist of the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force.  Although the energy policy of Turkey includes reducing fossil-fuel imports, coal in Turkey is the largest single reason why greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey amount to 1% of the global total.  Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the first president elected by direct voting.  On 15 July 2016, an unsuccessful coup attempt tried to oust the government.  In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Ottoman Turkish oil wrestling champions such as Koca Yusuf, Nurullah Hasan and Kızılcıklı Mahmut acquired international fame in Europe and North America by winning world heavyweight wrestling championship titles. L’organisation des rapports entre État et religions en Turquie 121 174) 6. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature, Volume 23", "Ottoman/Turkish Visions of the Nation, 1860–1950", "An Ottoman warning for indebted America", "Collapse of the Ottoman Empire, 1918–1920", "Why Turkey hasn't forgotten about the First World War", "ECHR: Why Turkey won't talk about the Armenian genocide", "Creating a Modern 'Zone of Genocide': The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923", "Turkey holds first election that allows women to vote", "Growth in United Nations membership (1945–2005)", "Turkish Military Leaders Held for Role in '97 Coup", "U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Counterterrorism: Foreign Terrorist Organizations", "Council of the European Union: Council Decision (CFSP) 2019/1341 of 8 August 2019 updating the list of persons, groups and entities subject to Articles 2, 3 and 4 of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism", Timeline: Kurdish militant group PKK's three-decade war with Turkey, "Turkish forces kill 32 Kurdish militants in bloody weekend as conflict escalates", "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM", "What's driving unrest and protests in Turkey? Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected at the theatre as well as in historical plays.  A decentralisation program for Turkey has been a topic of discussion in the country's academics, politics and the broader public.. , Country in Western Asia and Southeastern Europe, This article is about the country. La laïcité prônée par Atatürk est bien loin. The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC, which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area.. With the support of Sezen Aksu, the resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Tarkan and Sertab Erener. Le gouvernement multiplie les autorisations d’ouverture d’école religieuses (officiellement prévu pour former des imams). According to Acts of Apostles 11, Antioch (now Antakya), a city in southern Turkey, is the birthplace of the first Christian community.. Despite this however, western music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 1970s and 1980s. La Turquie fait l'expérience, depuis 1924, d'une laïcité dans le contexte d'un pays de culture essentiellement musulmane sunnite.  Turkey has officially rejected the claims, with the Minister of Defense Hulusi Akar stating that chemical weapons don't exist in the inventory of the Turkish Armed Forces.  The Kurdistan Workers' Party (designated a terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States, the European Union and NATO) was founded in 1978 by a group of Kurdish militants led by Abdullah Öcalan, seeking the foundation of an independent, Marxist-Leninist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan.  However snow is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.  Edirne Province has hosted the annual Kırkpınar oil wrestling tournament since 1361, making it the oldest continuously held sporting competition in the world. Between 1959 and 2011 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 2400 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations on issues such as Kurdish rights, women's rights, LGBT rights, and media freedom. , In a mid-2010s poll, 2.9% of Turkish respondents identified as atheists. , All of modern-day Turkey was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th century BC. The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923, which superseded the Treaty of Sèvres, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923 in Ankara, the country's new capital.  In the 10th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homeland into Persia, which became the administrative core of the Great Seljuk Empire, after its foundation by Tughril. , Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments (such as the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command) and agencies, all acting under the command of the President of Turkey or mostly the Minister of Internal Affairs. A theatrical conservatoire, Darülbedayi-i Osmani (which became the nucleus of the Istanbul City Theatres) was established in 1914. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. The house where Virgin Mary lived the final days of her life until her Assumption (according to Catholic doctrine) or Dormition (according to Orthodox belief), and the tomb of John the Apostle, who accompanied her during the voyage to Anatolia after the crucifixion of Jesus, are in Ephesus.  By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk.  In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans. Elle trouve ses origines dans les réformes de l'Empire ottoman au XIXe siècle, les Tanzimats (réformes) accordant l'égalité entre tous, quelle que soit leur religion. This book was based on recipes found in an 18th century Ottoman manuscript. The first painting lessons were scheduled at what is now the Istanbul Technical University (then the Imperial Military Engineering School) in 1793, mostly for technical purposes.  In recent years, Turkey has assisted Peshmerga forces in northern Iraq and the Somali Armed Forces with security and training. , Turkey has the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces, with an estimated strength of 495,000 deployable forces, according to a 2011 NATO estimate. , After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the number of Muslims in the region that became Turkey increased relative to that of the Christians with the immigration of Ottoman Muslims, who were facing extermination or other forms of repression in the newly constituted Balkan states. L’Islamisme turc par Jean-Pierre Touzane La loi sur l’éducation de septembre 1998, inspirée par le MGK, rend obligatoire 8 ans d’enseignement (au lieu de 5) dans le secteur public…  The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President.  Under the government of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), discrimination against, and persecution of, the Alevi minority has increased. The Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011, while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014.  The Association of Atheism (Ateizm Derneği), the first official atheist organisation in the Balkans or Middle East, was founded in 2014. After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005.  In 1927, when the first official census was recorded in the Republic of Turkey, the population was 13.6 million. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system. However, negotiations for solving the Cyprus dispute are still ongoing between Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot political leaders.. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. , The reforms, combined with unprecedented amounts of funding from foreign loans, spurred rapid economic growth; but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake in Izmit that year), and 2001; resulting in an average of 4 percent GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.  The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) is the government body overseeing the broadcast media.  Fossil fuel subsidies were around 0.2% of GDP for the first two decades of the 21st century, and are higher than clean energy subsidies. In time, Turkish women began to appear on stage, which was an important development in the late Ottoman society.  The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his comrades against the occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of the sultanate on 1 November 1922, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. ", "Çatalhöyük added to UNESCO World Heritage List", "Ziyaret Tepe – Turkey Archaeological Dig Site", "Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times And Today, "Anatolia and the Caucasus, 2000–1000 B.C. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras. , Immigration to Turkey is the process by which people migrate to Turkey to reside in the country. par Par Timour Muhidine, Le Monde diplomatique, octobre 1994.  The leading architects of this movement were Vedat Tek (1873–1942), Mimar Kemaleddin Bey (1870–1927), Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888–1982) and Giulio Mongeri (1873–1953). Dans une situation contradictoire, elle a un statut assez ambigu. , In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into medieval Armenia and the eastern regions of Anatolia. , Ottoman miniature is linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
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